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Vertical Agreements in EU Competition Law
Bos Door De Bomen – Mededingingsrecht (Dutch)
Bos Door De Bomen – Gegevensbescherming (Dutch)
Vertical Block Exemption Regulation – Toolbook


Table of Cases and Decisions xiii

Tables of Legislation xv

Table of Abbreviations xvii


1. Introduction

A. At a Glance 1.01

B. Article 101 TFEU 1.09

C. Implementation of Article 101 TFEU 1.14

D. Regulations 330/2010 and 461/2010 1.47

E. Enforcement of Article 101 TFEU 1.62

F. Hard v Soft EU Competition Law 1.90


2. Road Maps

A. At a Glance 2.01

B. First Block: General Scope of Application 2.09

C. Second Block: Limitations to the General Scope of Application 2.48

D. Third Block: Market Share Limits 2.77

E. Fourth Block: Substantive Assessment 2.84

F. Fifth Block: Non-Application and Withdrawal 2.96

G. Practical Conclusions 2.104

3. Article 2(1): Scope of Application of Regulation 330/2010

A. At a Glance 3.01

B. First Step: Involvement of Two or More Undertakings 3.04

C. Second Step: Vertical Agreements 3.48

D. Third Step: Effect on Trade between Member States 3.109

E. Fourth Step: Presence of Vertical Restraints 3.165

4. Article 2(2)–(5): Limits to the Scope of Application of Regulation 330/2010

A. At a Glance 4.01

B. Fifth Step: Agreements Entered into by an Association of Undertakings 4.03

C. Sixth Step: The Role of IPR 4.13

D. Seventh Step: Agreements between Competitors 4.38

E. Eighth Step: The Applicability of Other BER 4.49

5. Article 3: Market Share Threshold

A. At a Glance 5.01

B. Background to the Market Share Limits 5.04

C. Ninth Step: Definition of the Relevant Market 5.12

D. Tenth Step: Calculation of the Market Shares 5.53

E. Application of the Market Share Limits 5.70

6. Article 4: Hardcore Restrictions

A. At a Glance 6.01

B. The Concept of ‘Hardcore Restrictions’ 6.04

C. Territorial Scope of Application 6.41

D. Article 4(a)—RPM 6.50

E. Article 4(a)—Territorial and Customer Restrictions 6.89

F. Territorial and Customer Restrictions in a Selective Distribution System 6.236

G. Restrictions on the Sale of Spare Parts 6.255

7. Article 5: Excluded Restrictions

A. At a Glance 7.01

B. The Concept of ‘Excluded Restrictions’ 7.02

C. Non-Compete Obligations Outside Article 101(1) TFEU 7.05

D. Non-Compete Obligations Under Regulation 330/2010 7.19

E. Non-Compliance with the Conditions for Block Exemption Under Regulation 330/2010 7.84

8. Article 6 (Non-Application) and Article 29 Regulation 1/2003 (Withdrawal)

A. At a Glance 8.01

B. Non-application 8.03

C. Withdrawal 8.09

9. Frequently Used Distribution and Supply Scenarios

A. At a Glance 9.01

B. Selective Distribution 9.14

C. Non-selective Distribution 9.49

D. Choice Between Selectivity and Non-Selectivity 9.85

E. Franchising 9.114

F. Agency 9.136

G. Industrial Supply and Subcontracting 9.168

H. E-Commerce 9.218


10. Economics and Self-Assessment of Vertical Agreements

A. At a Glance 10.01

B. Overarching Principles Governing Self-Assessment 10.06

C. Framework of Analysis 10.10

D. Positive and Negative Effects of Vertical Restraints 10.39

E. Indications in the Vertical Guidelines 10.84


11. Motor Vehicle Distribution

A. At a Glance 11.01

B. General Overview of the Current Block Exemption 11.13

C. Position of the Different Market Participants 11.23

D. Distribution of Motor Vehicles 11.58

E. Provision of After-Sales Services 11.172

F. Distribution of Spare Parts 11.264

G. Practical Summary 11.302

Index 455